Secondary Source Report-NO

  1. Terressa A. Benz , Toxic Cities: Neoliberalism and Environmental Racism in Flint and Detroit Michigan, Critical Sociology 2019, Vol. 45(1) 49–62, 2017

This article, while focused primarily on Flint, goes into detail about some of the history of racism and, in fact, environmental injustice that goes on within Michigan, which seems to be both something that is pervasive throughout the issues in the state, and yet even the more liberal news sites don’t mention the systematic racism as much as racism on much smaller scales, such as directly contrasting Benton Harbour and St Joseph.

2. Ron Fonger, 71 Michigan water systems now have higher lead levels than Flint,, Jan 19, 2017

While of course what happened in Flint is awful, and it’s good that it’s getting better, a look at cities throughout the state shows that fixing Flint is just fixing a symptom of a larger issue, with cities having higher lead levels without even having their names known outside of Michigan unless they’re already well known. When people compare Newark to Flint, and don’t even know the name of a single city worse than flint within the same county, you know there’s a problem.

3. Carter Welch, A Blue Dividing Line, Dear Dartmouth,, Aug 9, 2020

While the water is of course the main talking point, this article was written by someone who lives not far from both Benton Harbor and St Joseph, and it points out that the issues don’t stop with water, talking about how there were many issues such as police brutality, healthcare, and poverty were all highlighted greatly by the pandemic.