Annotated Bibliography – SC

Committee on Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure, and Institute of Medicine. Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2011. Accessed October 6, 2019. ProQuest Ebook Central.

This book documents the way in which the Institute of Medicine examined whether Blue Water Navy veterans were exposed to Agent Orange and are therefore deserving of benefits under the Agent Orange Act. The source will help in the development of my argument by allowing me to use veterans as a contrast to Newark residents and vietnamese people exposed to Agent Orange. While Navy veterans did not initially receive disability benefits, they too try and fight to receive help from the US government.  Looking at how Veterans are treated by the government and Department of Veterans Affairs will provide a good contrast to the ways Newark residents and Vietnamese people were treated. My paper will then explore the reasons for the difference in treatment. 

Frey, R. S. “Agent Orange and America at War in Vietnam and Southeast Asia.” Human Ecology Review 20, no. 1 (Summer, 2013): 1-10,67.

This source looks at the environmental impacts and consequences of militarism and the use of Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. The articles explores the origins of Agent Orange, the scope and scale of how it was used by the military, and the environmental, health and economic consequences of Agent Orange. Frey makes the argument that the herbicide was used due to geopolitical and domestic tensions and that there are still recent developments resulting from the use of Agent Orange. This article will help in the development of my paper for several reasons. First, it nicely outlines the environmental injustice that took place because of Agent Orange in Vietnam. Second, it explores the reasons why Agent Orange was used which will help develop my argument that explores how race and class played a role in environmental justice both in Vietnam and Newark. 

MARTINI, EDWIN A. Agent Orange: History, Science, and the Politics of Uncertainty. University of Massachusetts Press, 2012.

This book explores the numerous effects of Agent Orange on the environment, civilian population and troops in Vietnam. This book offers a comprehensive look at the story behind the use of Agent Orange and answers several important questions. This book will be helpful in my paper because the book explores what exactly the US government knew about the harmful effects of Agent Orange, looks at what should be done for both US soldiers and Vietnamese victims, and explores the controversy that continues to surround the use of Agent Orange. This source seems to be a really good reference guide for “background information,” and will allow me to see how another scholar approached the history of Agent Orange while I try and fill in some of the missing pieces and connect it to the development of Agent Orange in Newark. 

PALMER, MICHAEL G. “The Case of Agent Orange.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 29, no. 1 (2007): 172-95.

In 2004, claims were filed on behalf of  Vietnamese people who suffered from Agent Orange in the New York District Court. Although the claims were dismissed, this article offers a commentary on the case in order to explore the broader themes of politics, international law, and the accommodation of individuals during war. This article will be very useful in my paper as it presents a comprehensive view of the lawsuit made by Vietnamese people in regards to Agent Orange. As I hope to show that both the people of Newark and the people of Vietnam attempt to hold chemical companies accountable for their actions, this article does a good job of providing commentary on the key case brought up by Vietnamse victims. 

Tirza S. Wahrman, “Agent Orange in Newark: Time for a New Beginning,” Seton Hall Law Review 29, no. 1 (1998): 89-94.

This article looks at the use of Agent Orange in Newark and the way that the people of Newark came together to demand change. So far, this is really the only secondary  source I’ve found that discusses the use of Agent Orange in Newark. This source will help in my paper as it will help supplement information I find through primary sources and it also provides a succinct description of the environmental problems Agent Orange had on the Newark environment. 

Keywords: race, class, toxics, water, factories, global,