Annotated Bibliography – RV

The following sources represent the various necessary threads of my research. They showcase the history of tourism, social inequality, and environmental degradation on the Mexican Caribbean. They examine the current environmental awareness of people living on the Mexican Caribbean. They lay out the chronology of Sargassum inundations. They highlight the science completed about the Sargassum. And finally, they introduce varying concerns and hopes for the Sargassum. This selection is meant to touch upon each facet of the project.

Manuel-Navarrete, David “Entanglements of Power and Spatial Inequalities in Tourism in the Mexican Caribbean.” Research Network on Independent Inequalities in Latin America Working Paper Series no. 17, (2012).

“Entanglements of Power” explores the hegemonic systems that allow colonizers (Europeans, U.S. Americans, Mexicans, and other Yucatecans) to create spatial inequalities along the Mexican Caribbean. Specifically, the author finds that Mestizo and Mayan workers are held from inhabiting spaces designated for tourism. These findings are related to larger patterns of globalization and reconfigurations of local power positions. The author additionally includes how Mestizo and Mayan communities have resisted spatial inequalities created along the Mexican Caribbean. This article will be very helpful in providing information regarding the development of tourism on the Mexican Caribbean. Further, the article will help tremendously in laying a groundwork for understanding inequalities that already exist for specific groups along the Mexican Caribbean in relation to tourism. Finally, the anecdotal evidence regarding resistance to spatial inequalities will provide me with a better understanding for how these communities respond to inequality. Ultimately, this will give me context for the actions taken by working communities along the Caribbean Coast in response to Sargassum blooms.

Murray, Grant. “Constructing Paradise: The Impacts of Big Tourism in the Mexican Coastal Zone,” Coastal Management 34 (2007): 339-355.

“Constructing Paradise” provides the history of the development of tourism in the Mexican Caribbean and specifically Cancún. Murray outlines the social inequalities created by this development and further showcases the environmental destruction that it has caused. He makes a broader argument about the fact that the Mexican government, municipal governments, and industry stakeholders were aware of the various social and environmental problems created by tourism, but have done very little to solve the issues. This article will be used firstly, to provide me with a firm understanding of how tourism developed on the Mayan Riviera. But it will also be used to understand the various social and environmental dynamics at play and to explore the role of the state in the process of creating this dynamic.

 Sotelo, Lilia Susana Padila Y, Acharya, Arun Kumar, Moliner, Ana Maria Luna and Martínez Pablo Bayón “Tourism and Environmental Education in the Mayan Riviera at the Beginning of the Twenty First Century.” Journal of Human Ecology 28, no. 1 (October 1, 2009): 1-14.

“Tourism and Environmental Education in the Mayan Riviera at the Beginning of the Twenty First Century,” a social scientific study, provides an overview of the development of tourism on the Mexican Caribbean Coast. The authors relate this history to specific environmental concerns of this region. Further, the authors use collected data to show how the various identity groups on the Mexican Caribbean view their environment. Ultimately, they make a case regarding the implementation of environmental education in an effort to better inform tourism development. I will first use this article to understand and relay the history of tourism on the Mexican Caribbean. Specifically, I will be looking at the role that local and state governments played in the development of tourism in relation to the role of the people. Secondly, I will use this article to better understand the demographics of this region throughout time. It will be important for me to understand the makeup of the people living on the Mexican Caribbean in relation to the people that visit there. Primarily, however, I will use this article to gain an understanding of how the people in this region perceive their relationship to the environment they live in. This kind of information will provide better insight into the findings I make regarding how communities and local and state governments are dealing with Sargassum blooms.

 The Yucatan Times. 2011-2019. Articles pertaining to Sargassum Blooms.

Above is an incomplete citation that is meant to be representative of a large body of articles generated by The Yucatán Times. Since 2011 when the first large Sargassum blooms began, this news source has been covering the topic on a very consistent basis. Given that this is a source that focuses specifically on the Yucatán, I will be able to gather the information that is most pertinent to the Mexican Caribbean as opposed to other locations where the blooms are occurring. I will use these articles to firstly follow a chronological thread of when the area experienced different blooms. The articles in The Yucatán Times also often discuss the various creative ways that communities are fixing or navigating around the problem. Therefore, I will also use these articles to gain local information regarding how affected communities, local governments, and the Mexican government are choosing to deal with Sargassum blooms. The research gathered concerning the various methods for amending the problems associated with algal blooms will further help me to interpret how communities and local and state governments are perceiving their relationship with and responsibility for the problem itself.   

Wang, Mengqiu, Chuanmin Hu, Brian B. Barnes, Gary Mitchum, Brian Lapointe, and Joseph P. Montoya. “The Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt.” Science 365 no.6448 (July 5, 2019): 83-87.

Published in 2019, “The Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt” is the most recent published scientific article about Sargassum blooms. The scientists used long-term satellite data, numerical models, and field measurements to respond to rising concerns regarding how to manage algal blooms in tourist locations. The article is also responding to questions regarding the cause of the Sargassum algal blooms. The article focuses on 2011 to 2019 and includes within it references for much of the research already completed up until this point. The article will be used for a number of purposes in my research. Firstly, it will be the basis for my understanding and explanation of the science behind Sargassum algal blooms in the Mexican Caribbean. Secondly, I will be able to use this study to locate past scientific studies to further follow a chronological thread of the scientific intrigue into Sargassum blooms. And thirdly, I will use this article and the ones it references in relation to current and past local discussion about the issues created by Sargassum blooms. Have new scientific studies shifted the way people in the Mexican Caribbean view the Sargassum? Or has this study and others simply corroborated what locals were already feeling?

 TAGS: gender, global, oceans, race, tourism, water, women