Annotated Bibliography-KP

Bullard, Robert D., Dismantling Toxic Racism, The Crisis Publishing Company, 2007

This source is a magazine article that examines the history of some important events where toxic racism was experienced.

Although this article touches up on various toxic racism events, it opened up my eyes to other occasions where the Memphis Sanitation Strike might have influenced their fight for their environmental justice. This article helped me gain more insight into the events that occurred throughout the years of 1978-1982 in a predominately black community, Warren County, North Carolina. In 1978, highly intoxicated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) were illegally dumped in 14 North Carolina counties alongside 210 miles of roadways. In 1982, these roadways were then cleaned up and by a court decision from the state, the soil was dumped in the Warren County landfill. Protest after protest, the county finally received their justice and Warren County was detoxified. In the end, he talks about other toxic racism dealings that have occurred in Texas and Middle Tennessee which I believe could come to my advantage at some point throughout my paper.


Green, Laurie B., The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Volume 24: Race, University of North Carolina Press, 2013

This source is a chapter in a book that analyzes the Memphis Sanitation Workers’ Strike that occurred on February 12, 1968.

This source educated me with detailed information about the Memphis Sanitation Strike that occurred on February 12, 1968. However, the sanitation workers have been fighting for union recognition since 1960. It wasn’t until the death of two garbage workers, that nearly 1,300 sanitation workers walked out on their job and joined the movement for better rights. Sanitation workers who were African American got paid so low that their families still qualified for food stamps, they were given no sick days or disability insurance and lived in the poorest neighborhoods. Ultimately, this strike brought together the labor movement, antipoverty movement and the black freedom movement. Unfortunately, the Mayor denied them union recognition once again and left the sanitation workers and their supporters with no other choice than to continue protesting. Two week later, during a peaceful protest Police officers decided to mace the workers, supporters and the African American prime minister which angered many people. This was the moment when they realized that the fight was much more than sanitation worker rights, but a fight for dignity and respect for ALL African American.  


Keywords: Race, African American, Community, Pollution, Toxic