Annotated Bibliography-AD

Crawford, D. W., et al. “Sources of Pollution and Sediment Contamination in Newark Bay,

New Jersey.” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 30, no. 1, Feb. 1995, pp.

85–100, doi:10.1006/eesa.1995.1010.

Within the time frame I am looking to reference, this article provides data with numerical evidence of chemical contamination found within the Newark Bay. This article mentions some industrial plants and their contribution of discharge and what kind of pollutants were dumped into the Bay. There is also mention of the sewage system within Newark and the organic compounds that negatively affected the water and community. Historically, this piece goes over most topics I would like to touch on within my paper and backs it all with data. It also mentions accidental spills that occurred in the Bay as well. 

Modica, G. R. (2014, March 24). THE HISTORY OF THE NEWARK SEWER SYSTEM. Retrieved October 05, 2020, from

Upon researching the author of this, I learned that she is a senior historian and worked with the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office (NJHPO) to gather this information on the history of the Newark Sewer System. I think understanding the history of the system and seeing how it works will help me to better understand and argue what was flawed with it historically and how these communities that surround it were affected. 

Pflugh, Kerry Kirk, et al. “Consumption Patterns and Risk Assessment of Crab Consumers from the Newark Bay Complex, New Jersey, USA.” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 21, Elsevier B.V, 2011, pp. 4536–44, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.017.

This article provides concrete evidence from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and other sources as to how the pollution of Newark Bay affected the food consumption of the  surrounding community, specifically with the consumption of crabs. There is a resourceful survey within that provides community feedback about the crabs that were being consumed that came from the polluted Newark Bay. There is also data that shows the link between crabs from the polluted bay water to health issues, specifically lifetime cancer risks. 

Wilson TP, Bonin JL. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace

Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey. U.S. Geological

Survey; 2007.

This book is a scientific investigation report from the U.S Department of Interior and the U.s Geological Survey. The goal of it is to” including the methods, concentrations, and estimates of loads of sediment, carbon, organic compounds, and trace elements…Preliminary interpretations regarding sources and behaviors of the toxic chemicals of concern and relations between contaminant concentrations and the hydrologic attributes of these tributaries are presented.” (Wilson 3, Purpose and Scope). Using this book, there is tons of information, data, charts, diagrams and more to back the topic of the pollution within the Newark Bay. Sources of this pollution is also discussed within.

Santasieri, C. (2012). Port of call or port of conflict : the evolution of the port of New York

and New Jersey, port-city relationships, and the potential for land use conflicts on the

Newark bay waterfront . New Jersey Institute of Technology.

This dissertation is a case study that focuses upon the Newark and New York ports, and the relationship between these ports and the land use conflicts on the shores of the bodies of water. There is a historical evolution discussed which could provide background as to the industrial impact on the Newark Bay. As well,it discusses redeveloping waterfronts for non-industrial use. This could help to give insight into future operations towards making things cleaner.

Keywords: Race, African American, Class, Pollution, Water